In the paleolith — the ancient stone age, primitive it was presented music, dances, songs and ceremonies, and geoglyphs — images on the surface of the earth, dendrogram images on the bark of trees and the images on the skins of animals, various body adornments using colored pigments and all kinds of natural objects such as beads, popular and now. All of the above but not able to withstand the onslaught of the ravages of time. So, survived and were discovered only gradually abstract symbols carved on artificially superhard rock surfaces on the territory of Central India, Northern Australia and in Peru. as well as icons of positive and negative hand stencils and animal images in the cave (Nerja, on the southern coast of Spain, SWE. Ardeche, South of France) zoomorphic and anthropomorphic sculpture of small forms (Venus of the Lobby-Fels and the People-lion in the Swabian ALB, Germany) from bone and stone, engraving and bas-reliefs of the bone, stone tiles and the horn, the time of the upper Paleolithic (35.000 — 40.000 thousand years) and numerous clusters of petroglyphs on the rock surfaces under the open sky, the Neolithic, or new Continue reading
When we talk about the masterpieces of ancient architecture, it is impossible not to think about the flow of architectural art — Gothic. Many believe that the term “Gothic” appeared in the Middle ages, but it’s not. It was introduced in the Renaissance to generalize all medieval art, which was considered “barbaric”. In the first years of the XIX century, after the birth in the art of the term “Romanesque”, clarified certain chronological framework of Gothic. It was divided into three temporal divisions: early, Mature, late.
Scottish castle of the Duke of Argyll on Loch Fyne (1746-89) is one of Europe’s first neo-Gothic edifices.
In the nineteenth century, the British, the French and the Germans challenged each other’s right to be considered the pioneers of Gothic, but the palm in the revival of interest in medieval architecture unanimously pass the UK. In the Victorian era the British Empire in the metropolis and in the colonies led large scale and functional diversity in the construction in the Gothic revival style, the fruits of which are such well known buildings as “big Ben” and the tower bridge.
Fonthill-Abby — the country house of the English writer William Beckford, with 100-metre Gothic tower (built in the years 1795-1813).
The main place in Gothic architecture, is a religious buildings — churches. The Gothic Cathedral is a fusion of many masterpieces. Continue reading
Underground structures were known in ancient times. They were built initially for housing and graves, in the construction of temples, then to mine stone and ore, and later for water supply, drainage, irrigation and transport. The question of when and where was built the first hydro-technical tunnel, hitherto not permitted.
During excavations . started in 1902 by R. MacAlister in Palestine, near the ancient city of Gezer, mentioned in the XV century BC. discovered a large tunnel height 7, width 3,96 m. pierced in the solid rock. He’s eight stages went down to the underground source. Researchers attribute the construction of this tunnel to the early bronze age, around the twentieth century BC
Known . which to supply Jerusalem and Bethlehem spring water in Wadi-Wadi and Bear-Aroub in the VIII century BC was built several hydraulic tunnels, the largest of which had a length of 537 m. the Tunnels were reported to-surface shafts of rectangular cross section, serving for ventilation.
In Jerusalem there was also the sewer system to drain from the temples of the blood of sacrificial animals.
The tunnels were part of the great aqueduct, which supplied water G. Wang, known Continue reading