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Gothic Krakow

Gothic Krakow

1241 Krakow brought terrible destruction. The Tartar hordes burned and looted everything that was outside masnih walls of Wawel castle and the fortified Church of St. Andrew.

New stage of reconstruction of the city began in 1257 with the bookmarks and messes up regular grid of streets on a square about 0.5 km2. In 1241 to 1257 was the last Romanesque buildings of Krakow and the beginning of the subsequent reign of Gothic architecture.

Appeared in the city in the first half of the XIII century. dominikanie monastic orders, Franciscans and Cistercians to the end of the century acted as legislators architectural fashion, actively prenosivih new styles.

The look of the Old city after the Tatar invasion to a large extent was influenced by the architecture of the churches of the Franciscans at ul. Franciszkanska and the Dominicans at the far end of Plac Wszystkich Swietych. Their layout is typical for the early Gothic churches of medium size. The temples are built of red brick with accents of local limestone, subsequently used in the construction of almost all Gothic churches of Cracow.

In the reign of Casimir III the Great (1310-1370) was the flourishing of the Gothic style in architecture, both ecclesiastical and civil buildings. Under his patronage the scattered Romanesque building of the Wawel hill were integrated into the impressive castle complex, fragments which are still visible today (mainly towers and the lower levels of the castle).

Municipal building Main market was rebuilt in the style befitting the trading center of a thriving urban economy. Kazimirov arches of the cloth hall, the equivalent of today’s stock exchange, reached, even under later layers of the Renaissance, until our days, and town hall tower, in the halls which once debated the influential burghers, members of the City Council.

In nearby Kamenice Hetmanski (Kamienica Hetmanska) preserved bas-relief portrait of king Casimir. It was carved on the ceiling, probably soon after the king’s death.

King Casimir has also supported the construction and rehabilitation of the largest and most important churches in Krakow.

If in the West, the architects moved in the direction of create thinner walls and stained glass Windows supported by wide buttresses, the architects Casimir were limited in their work, dense buildings of Krakow and developed the alternative design is long and narrow temples with| attached to the walls by buttresses: In this style were reconstructed Mariachi the Church and the Wawel Cathedral, built in Kazi-between the new Church of St. Catherine and the body of Christ.

The final phase of development of Gothic art in Krakow dates from the late XV century when in Italy already dominated the Renaissance. A native of Nuremberg, Stwosz wit (1438 – 1533) raised the art of sculpture to new levels of expressiveness in such masterpieces as the partition is the altar of St. Mary’s Church and the tomb of Casimir IV Jagiellonian. Although roughly in 1492, STOs returned to his hometown, the impact on Krakow’s artists were preserved and subsequently, as many of them studied in his workshop.

In the XV century, widespread firearms, and the value of knightly cavalry fell. King Jan I Olbracht (1459-1501) gave orders to build new fortifications corresponding to the changed conditions of warfare. Now for the defenders was important not so much the height of the walls, how much the presence of defensive structures of complex configuration, the picturesque Krakow Barbican, and a good position to shell advancing.

 

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