Temples in honor of the God Chronos
Temples in honor of the God Chronos
Many of the most significant monuments of the early and ancient history all over the world were calendar structures, the purpose of which was to consolidate time into spatial forms. These quaint structures of the peoples of Central and South America were built based on solid astronomical knowledge.
Time is one of the greatest mysteries in the world and the key to many mysteries. Many modern physics, and along with them, and mystics believe that time does not exist as such. What we call time is only the apparent sequence of movements in space. So the time is actually impossible to measure. What we are witnessing with the so-called time dimension — not that other, as change in space. And the hour hand is also showing us only their own movement. How about the concept of time itself and how closely it is connected with properties of space, was brilliantly proved mathematically by albert Einstein in 1905 First of all, he abandoned the conventional concept of space, replacing it with the concept of curvature of space. The idea of spaces with nonlinear coordinates leads, of course, to complete destruction of the concept of time. Because of that, and different watches under the laws of the relativity theory will go at different speeds if they are moving. This scientific discovery leads to a number of problems associated with Space, and then the question of the beginning of all things, that is, about Creation.
However, the revolutionary ideas of Einstein seemed to be only scientists-scientists who since the time of the Renaissance and, in any case, Education used to live in a deceptively reliable world, where everything is purely mechanical explanation. Mystics the theory of relativity has not opened anything new. For whatever cultural community they belong to, for them the space-time continuum has always been a manifestation of the divine. The keys to this understanding served as the starry sky and annual cycles of nature. Linking one with the other, the mystics are closer to the penetration to the main mystery of Creation, beyond mechanically-astronomical picture of the world.
The main mystery of Creation
Not accidentally in all ancient, and partly in some modern cultures calendar was given pronounced religious significance. And again no accident that many religious and cult constructions, for its part, served the purposes of the calendar or were specially constructed for this purpose. Modern Christian churches, too, are built so that the altar was facing East. And the East is not just a party light. There the Sun rises. No wonder we are talking about the countries, “lying to the sunrise”, or the land of the rising Sun in the far East. Time and space are combined even in the language: even our grandparents called South noon.
Complete the calendar clock. The first counts the periods of the annual cycle, determine the clock time of the day. Naturally, they are closely related. It was known to the ancient Romans. The length of an hour changed every day. During summer, daytime hours were shorter night, in winter, on the contrary: the Romans divided the period between sunrise and sunset into 12 equal intervals. Although this account seems unnecessarily complicated, but people used it for thousands of years.
Until a few decades ago, archaeologists did not believe that people of ancient times knew how to do such calculations. How could these “savages” to have such knowledge in astronomy, not in people the XX century when the study of ancient and ancient history took astronomers, the ability of our ancestors to measure time and count calendar was confirmed. Thus emerged a new scientific discipline — astroarchaeology. The pioneers were scientists Scot Alexander or his Sardinian colleague Carlo Masia. Now considered proven (though not all archaeologists of the old school admit it) that the most significant monuments of ancient and the most ancient eras in the world is somehow related to calendars, that is how they would fix the time in the space forms. For the proof adopted here is not the majority opinion. In our day for this, usually made by computer calculations, based on the principles of probability theory, which determine whether a building, a stone circle, abstract at first glance, the sculpture in the rocks, a pyramid or an ancient temple, erected according to the laws of astronomy or not.
An astronomical instrument or a monument?
Structures really are very different. Some of the ancient buildings, that had evidently been built as a giant astronomical instruments for measuring time. Most often it is a sundial, marking the start dates of the most important periods of the year, and in some cases, and afternoon hours of the day. Others were not adapted for direct measurement. They served as a kind of monuments of accumulated knowledge about the harmonic rhythms of the Cosmos and Creation in General. Sometimes they are arranged so that the sunset or sunrise or any visible stars in a particular day had against the desired mark. Such facilities not used for research, and, on the contrary, suggested a builders accurate astronomical knowledge. However, they do not leave any doubt in their purpose. More complicated to deal with the third category of such structures, the size and location of which on the ground is not connected with the calendar periods, and with the cosmic symbolism of numbers, accepted in this culture.
These are multi-stage tower of the Sumerians and Babylonians, called ziggurats. Their triangular shape symbolized the division of the world into three “floors” — Heaven, Earth and the underworld, and 7 levels of match 7 areas. Similar symbolism is found in buildings China, for example, in the Halls of the Mingtang, built, according to legend, king Wen Zhou dynasty (1122-255 BCE). A square building (square served as a symbol of the Earth) was covered with a circular thatched roof (circle symbolized Heaven). The building consisted of 5 or 9 square “rooms”, which had 12 doors by the number of months of the year. As the Sun passes one after the other 12 signs of the Zodiac, and the king entered every month in a new hall and announced through its doors their decrees to the people. In early Buddhism and Hinduism were also known similar structures with cosmic symbolism — for example, Buddhist Stupa, symbolizing the vault of heaven.