The history of the underground structures
Underground structures were known in ancient times. They were built initially for housing and graves, in the construction of temples, then to mine stone and ore, and later for water supply, drainage, irrigation and transport. The question of when and where was built the first hydro-technical tunnel, hitherto not permitted.
During excavations . started in 1902 by R. MacAlister in Palestine, near the ancient city of Gezer, mentioned in the XV century BC. discovered a large tunnel height 7, width 3,96 m. pierced in the solid rock. He’s eight stages went down to the underground source. Researchers attribute the construction of this tunnel to the early bronze age, around the twentieth century BC
Known . which to supply Jerusalem and Bethlehem spring water in Wadi-Wadi and Bear-Aroub in the VIII century BC was built several hydraulic tunnels, the largest of which had a length of 537 m. the Tunnels were reported to-surface shafts of rectangular cross section, serving for ventilation.
In Jerusalem there was also the sewer system to drain from the temples of the blood of sacrificial animals.
The tunnels were part of the great aqueduct, which supplied water G. Wang, known in the history under the name of the city of Babylon, and into the irrigation system around him. This water, acting to this day, was built in 800 years BC.
In one of the Armenian churches not far from Karmir-Blur (near Yerevan), where there are excavations of the ancient Urartian fortress, was found a basalt slab with an inscription of Urartian king Rusa, who ruled in the mid-seventh century BC The cuneiform text on this plate tells the story on behalf of the king: “. I this vineyard apart, fields of crops, orchards around I started there, the city I encircled, the channel from the river Aldaron I spent. “. This channel has survived to the present day. On it and now the water flows Echmiadzin channel. Part of it is a large tunnel, pierced in the thickness of the andesite-basalts. Thus, the tunnel is used for irrigation of about 2,600 years.
The great success achieved in the construction of hydraulic tunnels in ancient Greece. The numerous ruins built by the Greeks of underground conduits has been preserved to the present time both in Greece and in the areas that were in the ancient period of history in the sphere of influence of Greek culture.
Athens, which had at its heyday a population of up to 200,000 people, was supplied with water by water lines 18. Is one of them . bringing water from the river Illisos, had a tunneling area, passing under the bed of the river on the plain between Piraeus and Athens. Another tunnel, which supplied Athens with water from the headwaters of Illisos, was erected in the VI century BC. Height of the cross section of the tunnel — from 1.3 to 1.5, L2, and a width of 0.65 m. it is Interesting to note that one of the hydraulic tunnels, built around the same period, and by the time Athens provides good drinking water.
Of the later tunnels-conduits serving to supply Athens with water, a noteworthy conduit Hadrian finished the construction in 140 ad, the length of the tunnel sections of a conduit is more than 25 km and the Smallest cross-sectional dimensions of the tunnel — 1.1 X 0.4 m In weak rock tunnel had a brick lining. Along the tunnel we found a large number of mines the depth of 10 — 40 m, which was used as tunneling for the issuance of rocks on the surface. The power of a conduit was provided from underground aquifers through the system of tunnels, wells and drains.
For many centuries this tunnel was in use. In 1925, after the overhaul, it was again included in the water supply network of Athens.
Wonderful structure of ancient Greece (seventh century BC) is also a tunnel to supply the city of Samos on the island of the same name. This tunnel had a section 2,4×2,4 m and a length of 1200 m. Inside the tunnel were laid pipes, through which water once flowed. On the section of weak rock tunnel lined with dry stone walls.