The design features Gothic churches
The design features Gothic churches
The architecture of the early middle ages bears the scars of the overall relative stagnation in the development of the economy and culture of Western European countries.
Construction achievements of the ancient Romans were largely lost, the level of construction machinery declined. With the development of feudal relations gradually develop new types of fortified dwellings of feudal lords, monastery complexes and is developing the iconic building, which meet as centric type of composition (mainly the baptistry) and the Basilica. The leading place in the formation of the Western medieval Church is Basilica. Its medieval origins Basil leaves in late Roman architecture, when I started to shape the type of early Christian Church.
They were a front-axial arrangement with an elongated primary axis in space, separated by two or four rows of columns into three or five naves. The average was much wider and taller than the rest and were lit through the Windows, arranged in the upper part of the walls. The rows of pillars separating the naves. usually done in the form of arcades on columns, the spans between them had flat floors on wooden beams in the main nave is suspended from the wood trusses. Deep in the middle of the nave, where the altar was set. the apse was done. and to expand the sanctuary space reserved for the clergy and organized a cross-nave – transept. In front of the building sometimes were arranged surrounded by galleries courtyard – an atrium in the middle of which stood the bowl for the rite of baptism.
Gothic architecture originated in France in the region centre in Paris, called île-de-France. On 11 June 1144, Suger. the Abbot of the Royal Abbey of Saint-Denis, in the presence of five archbishops, 14 bishops, several abbots, and other important persons blessed the new choirs of their churches. Audience eyes opened unprecedented architecture: light pillars and a ribbed vault in the apse semicircular. flooded with light, newly finished facade with statues-columns and a lovely rose. Each vowed to build something similar, and since the middle of XII century the country was rolling wave building higher and higher, wider naves. Having hardly arisen, the new Gothic style spread throughout Europe and took to impetuous flight up. However, in those days it was called not Gothic, but “French style”, or opus francigenumѕ.
For Gothic, a characteristic of symbolic-allegorical thinking and conventionality of the artistic language. From the Romanesque Gothic architecture inherited the headship of the architecture in the system of the arts and traditional types of buildings. Special place in art was Gothic Cathedral – the highest example of synthesis of architecture, sculpture and painting (predominantly. stained-glass Windows ). Incommensurable with the man the space of the Cathedral, verticalism its towers and arches, the subordination of sculpture to architectural dynamic rhythms, multi-colored glow of stained glass had a strong emotional impact on believers.
The leading type of Gothic architecture was the Cathedral. soaring, with pointed arches, with the walls turned into stone lace, which was made possible thanks to a system of flying buttresses. carrying the pressure set on the outer pillars buttresses. The Gothic Cathedral symbolized the rush to the sky; the same purpose was to serve as its rich decoration – statues, reliefs. the stained glass Windows. Variety and themes of stained glass, in the range which was dominated by red, blue and yellow tones. The ossification and closure of the Romanesque statues were replaced by the mobility of the figures, their appeal to each other and to the viewer.
Stone Gothic cathedrals in France received its classical form. Typically, this is 3-5-nenye Basilica with a transverse nave – transept and polugrudov bypass chorus (“deambulatorio”), which adjoins the radial chapels (“the wreath chapels”). Their tall and spacious interior lit by flickering colored stained glass.
The impression of irrepressible motion through the air to the altar is created by rows of slender pillars, a powerful takeoff pointed Lancet arches, quickening rhythm of the arcades of the upper gallery (triforia). Thanks to the high contrast of the main and semi-dark of the aisles occurs picturesque aspects of wealth, the feeling of the infinity of space.
The structural basis of the Cathedral – a frame made of poles (in Mature Gothic – beam columns), and based on them Lancet arches.
The building structure consists of rectangular cells (travel) limited 4 the 4 pillars and arches, which along with the arches-ribs form the skeleton of the cross vault. filled with small lightweight ceilings and decks.
The lateral thrust of the main nave vault is transmitted by means of the foot arches (flying buttresses ) on the outer pillars, buttresses. Freed from the load of the wall between pillars erupt arched Windows. Neutralization of the thrust of the arch by bringing out the key design elements helped to create a feeling of lightness and spatial freedom of the interior.
On the facades vary arches and rich architectural and decorative plastic parts – patterned winery. Fiala. краб6ы, etc. Statues on the consoles in front of columns and portals in their upper arched gallery, the reliefs on the plinths and in the tympanums of the portals, as well as on the capitals of columns form a whole story-system, which includes the characters and episodes of Scripture, allegorical imagery.
How was born such an unusual architecture? It is impossible to consider all theories born within the answer. Those that were converted to the design of the arch, gradually left in the past: it was believed that the character and essence of the Gothic — ribbed vault revolutionary, but he was known much earlier in the East; it was used in the Norman churches and the end of the eleventh century, in 1093, Durham (England); and the Lancet arches are widely used in the Romanesque era in the Burgundy and Provence. Equated the Gothic style with the combination of characteristic elements (pointed arch, ribbed vault, flying buttresses) is also erroneous, because, in particular, it is unclear what the appearance of the latter. Scientists have long argued, defining what “holds” the building of the: ribs. supports, flying buttresses. And come to opposite conclusions.