The ancient Ural mountains
The ancient Ural mountains
The ancient Ural mountains firmly connected Europe and Asia. At the junction of two continents is spacious and colorful stretches an amazing edge, which brought together a unique landscapes of our planet. Earth’s depths hold untold riches, in the hands of archaeologists opens the heritage of ancient civilizations, and the creative genius creates the technique of the future.
This amazing region is called the South Urals. Region (Ural mountains), with its powerful industrial potential, today one of the ten most economically developed regions of the country. And in recent years, the Chelyabinsk region actively develops the rich Wellness potential using the dog possible climatic resource. You will see for yourself by visiting the Urals and the Ural mountains.
On the borders of Chelyabinsk
The intersection of the Urals (Ural mountains) – so you can briefly tell about the region. The geographical and historical crossroads, the intersection of events in nature and society. It is noteworthy geographical location of Chelyabinsk region – two planetary boundaries, like two Meridian crossing our mountains and steppes. First the planetary boundary known all over the world. This is the border of the Ural mountains between the continents – Europe and Asia.
The conditional border is along the watershed ridges of the Ural mountains and then the Ural river. The basis of the modern separation of the Eurasian mainland are justifications made an outstanding scientist and public figure V. N. Tatishchev. “. For the best natural separation of these two parts of the world these mountains I guess. “—wrote in 1736, being in the southern Urals, Vasiliy Nikitich.
Now where the mountain plot of the planetary boundaries crossed by Railways and roads, have memorable characters. The first of them, the obelisk “Europe-Asia” was! built in 1892 near the railroad tracks at the highest point of the pass across the Ural mountains. The granite obelisk located near the city boundary Chrysostom was! erected on the initiative and by the famous engineer and writer N. G. Garin – Mikhailovsky.
In the South Ural region to get from one continent to another, crossing the border river Ural. Therefore, the two bridges South Ural cities – Verkhneuralsk and Magnitogorsk became a sort of geographical landmark. The second planetary boundary less noticeable. Our region is at the junction of two physiographic countries! different geological structure and relief. This is the border between the Urals and Siberia. Western and North-Western parts of the region are located in the Ural mountain country. Granites, whose age is about 300 million years old, form a kind of underground border strip. Eastern and South-Eastern areas tend to be Western-Siberian lowland. Here the flat plain, and lake edge wetlands. Planetary boundary almost goes through Chelyabinsk, turning the city into a connecting link between the Urals and Siberia.
A man came to the Urals and the Ural mountains during the stone age. Presumably the colonization of the southern Urals came from the Caspian sea by waterways of rivers in the basins of the Volga and the Urals. Perfeitaa attracted favorable climatic conditions, abundance of animals and fish, the possibility of resettlement sites for housing and equipment of sanctuaries in the coastal caves. In the Chelyabinsk region is the most ancient Parking of the person – Bogdanovka is located on the left Bank of the Ural river (Kizilsky district). Lived here 50 thousand years ago, people left us not only skillfully made of Jasper and chert tools, but also hunting trophies: the bones of the mammoth, rhinoceros, bison, reindeer and cave bear. More than a dozen sites of the stone age was found on the shore of lake Zuratkul.
A worldwide sensation was the discovery in the caves of the southern Urals rock art. On the planet like caves of units. The most ancient in the southern Urals drawings made in Kuponai the cave (Republic of Bashkortostan). These wall images around 16 thousand years. In the Chelyabinsk area drawings of stone-age man can be seen on the walls of the cave Ignatievskaya located on the right Bank of the SIM river, 7 km from the village of Serpievka Katav-Ivanovsky district. The study of the cave began in the eighteenth century, in 1770 it was visited by the famous traveler German academician P. S. Pallas. Now this “picture gallery of the stone age” is visited annually by over 2 thousand people.
Pictures, aged 10-14 thousand years, discovered and copied over 50. Prehistoric artists depicted people and animals: mammoths and rhinos, horses and bulls, as well as numerous lines and signs. Only Impagavel in the cave found a sign in the form of a circle, framed by three segments resembling the trail of a rhinoceros. Individual images often are added to the picturesque red and black panels filled with mysterious symbols.
No less mysterious Ural “petroglyphs” or “painted rock.” Unique examples of ancient rock art that are at least 5 thousand years, found on the cliffs along the banks of the South Ural rivers and lakes. Among the drawn shapes: animals and birds, humanoids, and various geometric signs. Archaeological excavations confirm that space with wall and rock paintings were sacred to the ancient inhabitants of our land.
Archaeological sensation of the XX century was the discovery of W and in the Chelyabinsk region the “land of cities”. More than 20 fortified settlements of the middle bronze age. Proto have in plan the form of ovals, circles and squares that are inscribed with ancient Aryans in the picturesque landscape on the banks of rivers. Arkaim — the original capital of the “land of cities”, the contemporary civilizations of the Mediterranean and Egypt. Its size and circular architecture arch similar to Homeric Troy, but he’s ancient for 600-700 years. Here in the steppes of Eurasia was one of the world’s centers of civilization, which formed the center of ancient metallurgy on the basis of the local copper deposits, where it was tamed a wild horse and invented chariots. Traces of the most ancient on the planet chariots discovered in one of the settlements “land of cities” — Sintashta.
Today, the site of a fortified settlement is a Museum-reserve “Arkaim” is the most popular object of tourist show in the southern Urals. Unique monuments of “Arkaim” have become the pride of Russia, as his peers – the pyramids are to Egypt or the Stonehenge in England. Arkaim became a visiting place for thousands of tourists from all over the world, from schoolchildren to presidents. For all offers the opportunity to meet the oldest culture of humanity through a unique Museum exhibition. Within the reserve found more than 70 archaeological monuments belonging to different historical eras – from the stone age to ritual mounds and fences of the XII-XIV centuries ad.
Among the attractions of the “Arkaim” Museum of Man and Nature, cult and burial structures of the bronze age and the middle ages, the Avenue of menhirs and Kurgan “Temir”, ethnographic objects: Kazakh wintering, Russian settlement era of colonization, waterworks water mill of the late XIX -early XX century. In the Museum of ancient technology visitors will be able to get practical skills in the production of stone tools, pottery, weaving and braiding manufacture.
The special microclimate of the valley creates the conditions for a vast diversity of flora and fauna. Scientists found more than 700 species of plants. Reserve Arkaim valley becomes a unique place of harmony of man and nature.