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Megalithic structures

 

In the paleolith — the ancient stone age, primitive it was presented music, dances, songs and ceremonies, and geoglyphs — images on the surface of the earth, dendrogram images on the bark of trees and the images on the skins of animals, various body adornments using colored pigments and all kinds of natural objects such as beads, popular and now. All of the above but not able to withstand the onslaught of the ravages of time. So, survived and were discovered only gradually abstract symbols carved on artificially superhard rock surfaces on the territory of Central India, Northern Australia and in Peru. as well as icons of positive and negative hand stencils and animal images in the cave (Nerja, on the southern coast of Spain, SWE. Ardeche, South of France) zoomorphic and anthropomorphic sculpture of small forms (Venus of the Lobby-Fels and the People-lion in the Swabian ALB, Germany) from bone and stone, engraving and bas-reliefs of the bone, stone tiles and the horn, the time of the upper Paleolithic (35.000 — 40.000 thousand years) and numerous clusters of petroglyphs on the rock surfaces under the open sky, the Neolithic, or new the stone age (11.000 thousand years), is known on every inhabited continent. The Neolithic ruins are and the various megalithic structures in Europe, South America and Asia (for example: Stonehenge in Salisbury, with vertically placed stones in a circle — stone circles, weighing up to 50 tons, the UK, the orderly rows of large rough stones-obelisks, Karnak vast field, called the menhirs. and tomb complexes from untreated large stones, for example, Korbonski dolmen, Morbihan, France).

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Periodization

Cave paintings

Bison attacks man.

To our times preserved many petroglyphs, made by people of the Paleolithic era. primarily in caves. Most of these objects have been found in Europe, but they are found also in other parts of the world. When creating images used paints dyes from mineral (ochre. metal oxides), charcoal, and vegetable dyes that are mixed with the fat or blood of animals or water . The oldest known rock image is, apparently, the scene of battle rhinos in the Chauvet cave. age about 32 thousand years . Cave paintings often executed considering the color and the shape of the rock surface and with the transfer movement of the depicted animals, but, as a rule, without keeping the proportions of the figures, perspectives, and without the transfer volume. Rock paintings are dominated by images of animals, hunting scenes, human figures and scenes of ritual or daily activities (dances, etc.).

All primitive paintings, as part of primitive fine art, the phenomenon of syncretic and presumably was created in accordance with cults. Later, images of primitive fine art has become somewhat stylized. Many of the patterns, cave paintings are the world heritage sites of UNESCO .

Megalithic architecture

Megaliths (from the Greek. μέγας — large, λίθος — stone ) is a prehistoric structures made of large blocks. In the limiting case that one module (the menhir ). The term is not strictly scientific, therefore under the definition of megaliths and megalithic structures gets rather vague group of buildings. As a rule, they belong to the preliterate era of the area.

Distribution

Megaliths are common throughout the world, mainly in coastal areas. In Europe they mostly date back to the Eneolithic and the bronze age (3-2 Millennium BC), with the exception of England. where megaliths belong to the Neolithic period. Megalithic monuments are especially numerous and diverse in Brittany. A large number of megaliths found on the Mediterranean coast of Spain. in Portugal. part of France. on the West coast of England, in Ireland. Denmark. on the southern coast of Sweden and in Israel. In the early twentieth century it was widely believed that all megaliths belonged to one global megalithic culture, but modern research and Dating methods disprove this assumption .

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