Mysterious structure
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The Gothic era in Europe
The Gothic era in Europe The Gothic buildings amaze us with beauty and grandeur. As for these building people come to look at a thousand kilometers. There is in them…

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Gothic for

It is difficult to find the right words to describe impressions

of a Gothic Cathedral. They are high and reach for the sky endless

arrows of towers and turrets, visperhof, finials, pointed arches.

But more striking is not how much height. how much wealth

aspects. opening, when you circle around the Cathedral.

Gothic cathedrals are not only high, but also very

extended: for example Chartres has a length of 130 meters and

length of the transept is 64 meters, and to revolve around him

required to pass at least half a kilometer. And with each point

the Cathedral looks new. Unlike the Romanesque Church with its

clear, easily observable forms. the Gothic Cathedral is vast,

often asymmetrical and even heterogeneous in its parts: each of

its facades with their individual portal. Walls are not felt,

them as not.Arches, galleries, towers, some sites with

arcades, huge Windows, on and on – endlessly

complex, delicate open forms.And all this space

inhabited – the Cathedral both inside and outside is inhabited by a mass of sculptures (

in Chartres Cathedral around ten thousand sculptures).They

is not only the portals and galleries, but they can also be found and

on the roof, the eaves, under the arches of the chapels, the spiral staircases,

arise in the gutter, on consoles. In short,

the Gothic Cathedral is the world.

He really has absorbed the world of the medieval city.

If even now, in modern Paris, Cathedral in Paris

Our lady reigns over the city, and before it fades architecture

Baroque, Empire,classicism, it is possible to imagine how even

more impressive he looked then, in Paris, among curves

streets and small courtyards on the banks of the Seine.

Then the Cathedral was something more than just a place

Church service. Together with the town hall. it was the center of all

public life of the city. If the town hall was the center of

business activities, in the Cathedral, in addition to worship

happened theatrical performances, read University

lectures, sometimes Parliament met and even was small

trade treaties. Many city councils were so great that

all of the city’s population could not fill. Next to the Cathedral. as

a rule, were located the trading rows.

The needs of urban life motivated to convert a closed

thick-walled. serf type Romanesque Cathedral here in such

spatial, open to the outside. But it was

change the design itself. And after the design happened

the change in architectural style.

Turn to the Gothic style began with architecture, and only later it became

spread to sculpture and painting. Architecture

has consistently remained the Foundation of the medieval synthesis of the arts.

If you compare the typical structures of Romanesque and Gothic,

it seems that they are opposite. Some representatives

massiveness, others lightness. But if you take facilities

the transition period, it is evident that the Gothic style originates from

Romanesque roots.

It all began with a simple cell,with the cell covered

arch,traveI.They were square, and it’s put a certain

the limit on the extension of the main nave. The temple in such a system

slabs could not be large enough inside – he

remained narrow and dark. The idea of the architects is to ensure that

to strengthen and enhance the system of vaults. Solid the arches are replaced

rib slabs – a system of bearing arches. All

airiness, all the fabulous Gothic structure has

rational basis: it arises from the system frame

buildings. Medieval architects with a brilliant insight

applied here, the law of parallelogram of forces. On this basis,

wall in the Cathedral is great, and therefore there is no need

to do continuous and deaf. So appear through galleries

arcade, huge Windows. Galleries are used to set

statues and Windows for monumental paintings of colored glass.

Medieval artists passionately fond of clean, bright, resonant

paint. This has had an impact in stained glass and miniatures, in

the coloring of sculptures. These churches not outside, nor inside, not

seem overwhelming.They appear rather as the embodiment of

the active life of the medieval city. They are designed for

the quantity of people around was full of life. Inside the Cathedral is spacious,

the transept is almost merges with the longitudinal space. So

eliminates the sharp boundary between clergy and visitors.

“Sanctuary” ceases to be something inaccessible and unseen.

The tombs are placed directly in the temple, and not in a dark underground

the crypt, in the Romanesque churches. The Gothic dramatic, but not

gloomy and dull.

What was a medieval city? Basic

the mass of the urban population represented the most rebellious,

the loose strata of society. Artisans were no longer whose

some servants, they were United in the independent unions, shop.

In many cities there were universities.

Cathedrals and the town hall was erected by order of the local authority.

Was built and completed they long – for decades, if

for centuries. All the fine decoration of Gothic cathedrals,

including statues, reliefs, stained glass Windows and the altar painting. all

it was conceived as a kind of encyclopedia of medieval

knowledge is of course subordinate to theology.And in each

the Cathedral can be traced its own theme. For example Paris

dedicated to the mother of God and all that is connected with it; Amiens –

expressed the idea of messianism:on the facade the figures of the prophets.

But the intensions of these fine theological encyclopedias.

were. in General, such a vague and allegories so

conditional that under their protection they found the place the most

a variety of themes and motifs, including very far from

the Church’s concept of the universe.

Under the hands of medieval stonecutters dead stone comes to life

thousands of blooms and buds. It is difficult to find in history a more

organic form of synthesis of art. appearing on this

basis.

In most Gothic cathedrals sculpture decoration

prevailed over the painting, except for the stained-glass Windows: it is again

the same was determined by the character of the architecture. making walls

delicate and therefore unsuitable for frescos.Gothic

painting developed in the form of wall paintings, and the main

in the miniatures of the manuscripts and paintings in the altars of the flaps.

The painting of the altars was more developed in those countries where

Gothic architecture. for one reason or another kept

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